Saturday, January 18, 2020

Impact of Standardized Testing Essay

There is a vast literature available concerning African American male student accomplishment and its relation to the accomplishment gap occurrence (Perry, Stelle, & Hilliard, 2003; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 2003; Hrabrowksi, 1998; Ogbu, 1998; Patterson, 2006; Polite & Davis, 2001; Duncan, 1999; Freeman, 1999). Researchers and media channels explain the causes of African Americans continuously staying behind their White partners. Several provide limited allegations concerning African American male student accomplishment from either a past, sociological, or monetary view when deciding school achievement or failure. On the contrary, sufficient notice has not been granted to experiential and mixed methodological styles for assisting in advancing the debate concerning the provision of efficient resolutions toward narrowing the achievement gap that exists between African American male learners and counteracting deficit-model styles. In â€Å"Educating African American Males: Voices from the Fields†, the author Fashola (2008) and some other important academician researchers tackle this matter. The book is segmented in eight chapters, locating itself in many thematic areas that include social, ethnic, and past matters; school reform; primary, middle and high school experiences; structural analysis of manliness; institutional types of prejudice; and extra-curricular activities which assist in the promotion of affirmative self-confidence and analytical skills for African American males. Altogether, the providers enunciate the requirement of novel styles by demanding the educational commune to shift beyond conventional means of accomplishment and to comprehend the importance of social, past, ethnic, behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and educational styles that add to the broadening of the achievement gap between African American males and their white partners. Cooper and Jordan (2003) tackle the issues of African American male student achievement and they do this by locating and investigating the past as well as the methodical impacts of prejudice and also by displaying the way institutionalized domination have a part to play in the broadening of the achievement gap. The authors assess the elements such as uncontrolled unemployment, poverty, and insufficient accessibility to health care as the possible elements of African American males not being franchised in the circumstance of school and community. The authors imply that an â€Å"intergenerational poverty† (p. 2) exists which disseminates a self-fulfilling prediction for several of African American males. Ogbu’s (1998) research allows for the contextualizing of such past injustices. It is implied that â€Å"the treatment of minorities in the wider society is reflected in their treatment in education† (p. 159). In his book Noguera (2003) assists in the contextualizing of few of the practical attitudes which are required for the comprehension of certain of the behavioral trends of African American males which have an impact on them in school. The author offers information and research which record the way they were marginalized and wronged by the schooling experiences in the capitalist educational frameworks. Text offers a qualitative study which looks for determining the part that educators have in the motivation of students; teachers can utilize this information to reassess and modify their educational and instructional practices and also to fulfill the requirements of African American males and at the same time provide with suitable scaffolding so as to assist the learners in meeting the academic standards. Along with this, Noguera also debates that the learners are to be taught and habituated so as to see that the academic institutions are advantageous to them and also that the anticipations for them are high. Noguera writes about the schooling experiences of African American males by assessing their accomplishment trends in public schools and tackling with their consequent detachment. He writes that Black males underperform on standardized tests and that they undergo much higher drop-out rates. Although Black males achieve much and their performance is good in the primary grades, they tend to underperform by the age of nine (Garibaldi, 1992). His recommendation is that the educators should be placing literary and language enrichment at the head of their instructional concerns. This is particularly important during their primary school times; supplementing with the talents allows for African American males to become self-sufficient, analytical thinking is principal for their general intellectual achievement or failure. Development of Problem An operational attitude to the tradition of schooling also offers a valuable contextual structure for the investigation of student â€Å"oppositionality† and â€Å"resistance† (Ogbu, 1998) as minor traditional features displayed by particular minority learners in reaction to their communal marginalization. The idea of identity and the way it is written either by a person or the community is made pertinent by the reactions of these marginalized learners and is a vital part of a sufficient hypothetical viewpoint on tradition. The academic achievement gap which is present between African American and White learners is a very urgent contest for the urban education in the United States in the present times. Generally, the rank and academic achievement of minority groups in science have been issues of concern in various areas (National Science Foundation, 1994; Atwater, 2000). In a wide-ranging assessment of the issues, Jencks and Phillips (1998) suggest that there should be an application of methodical and preserved research attempts targeted at investigating the causes for the low performance of particular minority groups. When discussing the achievement gap and displaying it as a challenge for the urban education, there has to be an emphasis placed on certain aspects of the urban schools which are responsible for the existent gap. In the United States, the fact that the majority of the Black students study in urban or inner city institutions is correct, and on the other hand White students normally study at suburban schools. It is possible that this factor is responsible for the achievement gap between the Blacks and the Whites and it provides with an urban/suburban aspect. Urban academic institutions are also different from the suburban ones in the accessibility of the study material and commune sources. Even though the fact that the suburban schools normally have much better sources in contrast to the urban schools is true, an exploration can be made in whether the resources that are accessible for the urban schools are utilized most advantageously so as to improve the student involvement and intellectual accomplishment. Even though standardized testing traditionally has been slackly connected to responsibility and student education, the association had been weak. The association between student education and high-stakes standardized testing became more distinct, and a rise in the utilization of the tests has reached classic magnitude following the introduction of the No Child Left Behind. The argument behind such a connection is that raised pressure to perform well on standardized tests, and also a series of incentives and penalties, will raise the student education and accomplishment. Impacts of such testing standards have broad results, not just on the current generation but also on the next generations of youth. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to assess the impact that standardized testing has on African American male students. The study aims to display the issues connected with the impact of standardized testing on African American males. African American males face discrimination and due to that they do not perform as they should in their academics. Innumerable researches have been conducted to examine African American youths’ academic results. There is relative concentration with a stress on the achievement gap between African American youths generally and also that of other ethnic categories, like the Europeans and Asian Americans. Several conceptual structures have been offered which propose the achievement gap in educational results is the outcome of societal-level discrimination which afflicts African Americans (for example, Fordham & Ogbu, 1986; Ogbu, 1987, 1994; Steele, 1997). In reality, several of the studies record the negative impacts of such macro system-level elements on the encouragement and intellectual accomplishment of African American learners (Howard & Hammond, 1985; Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993; Steele & Aronson, 1995). Nature of the Study Social research can be deductive or inductive and each is applied according to the research type. Deductive approach refers to particular information that has been gained from a general theory. Through the theory the researcher gets the foresights concerning the happening. Deductive research is termed as theory testing. In the case when a research initiates with a theory and is following the hypotheses that the researcher has set to test, the approach is deductive. Deductive reasoning sets to work moving from the more universal to the more precise. Induction is usually described as moving from the specific to the general. Observations are used for inductive approaches. Inductive reasoning moves from the more specific to a broader generalization and theory. In this case there is quite some uncertainty involved and the conclusions are based on theories.

Friday, January 10, 2020

How The Meaning Of Democracy And Globalization Differs In Deferent Essay

Globalization is making international trade more easy and accessible. Business operations cut across transnational borders in contemporary times, more than before. Furthermore, there are increasing numbers of players in the international trade and deal transactions than ever before. The neo-liberalists views in international trade has always supported a globalize and open market order in which every countries is expected to open up its market and imbibe the culture of free trade, free economy entry and exit of labor and the opening of the state economy to the international market for active competition. The adoption of open markets have resulted in the political responses in terms of change in the political structure, that is hitherto exhibited and the way government intervene in her country’s economy. This change has resulted in the adoption of the neo-liberal stand. Even, the communist states are now gradually opening up to the trade zone to international transactions. â€Å"Globalization can be briefly defined as, the intensification of economic, political, social, and cultural relations across borders† (Holm & Sorensen, 1995:4). According to Yeung (2002), from an economic perspective the term globalization is defined as â€Å"the rapid proliferation of cross-border production, trade, and investment activities spearheaded by global corporations and international financial institutions that facilitate the emergence of an increasingly integrated and interdependent global economy†. Thus, globalization is a transformation of the world order to become accustomed to the changes of time and the pattern of the world order. Democracy is seen as a system of government where the government is accountable to the people, and sovereignty of the state lies with the people. Cultural differences in terms of the practices and way of living of people makes them adapt to different conceptualization and practice of philosophy associated with democracy and globalization. DIVERSITY IN CONCEPTUALIZING DEMOCRACY AND GLOBALIZATION IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES Williams (1983) try to capture in his book the differences between in articulated experience and the general conclusion reached in regards to democracy and globalization. This according to him has lead to the covert disappointments in the failure to formulate that tension abstractly. People’s experience in actual life sometime differs from the principles underlying democratic practices and the gains and pains attributed to globalization in the 21st century. Williams work preoccupies with the connections between human ideology and societal culture. The cultural difference between countries and political and economic settings tend to present different realities pertaining to democracy and globalization. For instance, in underdeveloped African countries democracy in the real sense which has to do with government by the people and where full public accountability is emphasized is a far cry from the realities. African leaders are corrupt and tend to infringe on people’s human rights. There is poor public accountability, amidst high level of corruption. The interpretation giving to democracy in the advanced western world respects the rights of the people and public accountability is emphasized. Sovereignty should lie with the people according to democratic principle, but in African countries that practice democratic rule, the leaders see themselves as custodian of sovereignty, as it is observed in a monarchical rule. The African culture embraces a fatalistic perspective to life, while the western culture tends to strive for change. This fatalistic lifestyle as made globalization not too beneficial to underdeveloped African countries, as they rely on primary goods production, which are grossly under priced in the international trade level. Williams thus, recognized the importance of taking individual and social circumstances into consideration as this bring about the differences in interpretation to vital issues of life, like democracy, human arts, industry, class and culture. The role of developing countries in globalizing the world is one in which they play significant role. Most raw materials utilized in both advanced economy and in processing into finish, products are sourced from developing countries from Africa, Asian, and Latin America. At the aftermath of the Uruguay Round Agreements (URA) the role of developing countries in global economy has increased significantly. Furthermore, the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is harnessing trade negotiations within developing countries. According to Michalopoulos (1999), â€Å"The integration of the developing countries into the multilateral trading system has been especially impressive for a group of perhaps 15-20 middle and higher income developing countries in Latin America and Asia†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The increasing significant of developing countries in speeding up the global development ascribes on them certain responsibilities that is expected for them to play. This comes in way of putting in place a smooth export trade zone for its raw materials and free movement of labor in and out their national boundaries. Some developing countries in assuming this responsibility has formed export agency among them to enable the smooth export trade in raw materials. â€Å"†¦exports have risen b y more than 10 per annum in volume since 1970†¦ the developed countries combined gross domestic product (GDP); at the beginning of the 1990s†¦accounted for 1. 8 per cent of GDP, whereas the figure in 1999 was 3. 2 per cent† (Akyuz, et al 2001). Developing countries has developed policies in their exports, which is characterized by imposition of control and taxes on export of primary products and foodstuffs, and also they tend to provide incentives and subsidies to their exports manufacturers (Michalopoulos 1999). Thus, the need to create a trade free zone and easy passage of primary products to international zone where they would be converted into finished product is one responsibility developing countries need to carry out. Furthermore, the developing countries play the significant role in the supply of labor, in the production process, given their large population. Developing countries have large labor markets, thus the supply of this to the global labor market goes a long way in contributing to global development. Thus improving of labor skills in developing countries is a way the usefulness of labor in this part of the world would contribute significantly in area of global development. In this view, Akyuz, et al (2001), has it that â€Å"improvement in labor market conditions will also require a reorientation of development policies at the national and global levels, particularly with respect to the speed and pattern of integration of developing countries into the global economy†. The role third world countries play in globalization is directly connected to how their cultural background and interpretation to the phenomenon is connected to their occupation and way of life. For instance, countries in Africa, it has 70 percent of its workforce in peasant farming. Thus, the continent economy is agrarian and thus, its involvement in globalization is in the production of primary product. On the other hand, advance western countries like U. S. and EU states, including advance Asian countries like Japan, China, produce finish products like automobiles, electronics etc. While the western world would conceive globalization as an expanded place for trading, with the less barrier to trade, the underdeveloped countries something conceive this as a continue exploitation of the westerners and the dependency on their products. CONCLUSION Democracy has in contemporary times being widely acknowledged globally in the political realm and in work place. Workers participation are urging for more participation as a way to embrace democracy. In addition, this globalization phenomenon has made organized capitalism to transit from corporate capitalism to monopoly capitalism not it is in its customer capitalism. However, democracy is different interpreted by countries in line with their cultural setting. While the advance political states seeks for more respect for human rights and public accountability, the underdeveloped state in their nascent democracy are trying to fight huge level of corruption and leadership oppression as it is being notice in Zimbabwe where Mugabe is hindering any move of oppositions. In addition, the conceptualization of globalization by different countries depends on the receiving end they find themselves in the international trade. While those countries primarily engaged in the production of primary products such as raw materials cry for unfavorable term of trade, the advanced economic countries see globalization as a pattern for encouraging free trade and maximizing economic wealth. REFERENCES Akyuz, Yilmaz, et al (2001), â€Å"Globalization, Inequality and the Labour Market† http://www. flassbeck. de/pdf/GLOBALIZ. PDF. (02/12/07)Michalopoulos, Constantine (1999), â€Å"Trade Policy market Access Issues for Developing Countries: Implications for the Millennium Round† http://wbln0018. worldbank. org/research/workpapers. nsf/bd04ac9da150d30385256815005076ce/a70066326b8be18c85256818005b9fb6/$FILE/wps2214. pdf. (2/12/07) Williams, Raymond (1983) Culture And Society: 1780-1950, Columbia University Press. Yeung, Henry W. (2002), â€Å"The Limits to Globalization Theory: A Geographic Perspective on Global Economic Change† Economic Geography, Volume 78, Number 3, July http://www. europe. canterbury. ac. nz/courses/euro223/yeong. pdf. (02/12/07)

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Can Alzheimers Be Stopped - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1247 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/04/04 Category Medicine Essay Level High school Tags: Alzheimer's Disease Essay Did you like this example? Summary This material was prepared by a big team which was written and produced by Sarah Holt known as film director. American and Colombian medical and genetic researchers united to investigate if Alzheimers disease can be stopped or not. On the example of several families from Colombia in which this disease was genetically transmitted, experiments were conducted to try to stop and prevent the onset of Alzheimers disease. Reflection This film is produced in an understandable language and is based on real events taking place in ordinary families and ordinary people. It is in easy access and will be clear to anyone. I was very interested in this film and it seemed very interesting and informative as same disease has affected my family too. This is why I choose this film to revise. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Can Alzheimers Be Stopped?" essay for you Create order The story begins with the fact that one of the Colombian families received a very bad version of this Alzheimers disease and each family member gets sick very early, at the age of 40-45 years. It is believed that this is a very early age and a rare event in world statistics. Therefore, the doctors undertook to specifically study this situation to help this family. Alzheimers disease damages the brain so affected people cannot think as they could before and normally perceive reality. There is one phrase that is uttered by one of the members of the family of the patient, and I quote: On some level, you know, Alzheimers is a kind of death in life, when your mom or your dad no longer recognizes their son or daughter. The person is no longer there, and yet they are. Deal with that. This phrase made me think and I heard some truth in these words that is actually very sad. There was an experimental drug administered to people who wanted to participate in a trial top take a chance and maybe escape from this challenging life situation. Narrator explains why the companies are having hopes on testing those drugs. The main points are to help millions of sick people plus get billions of dollars. Alzheimers disease is gaining momentum and world medicine is trying to come up with drugs that could prevent, treat, or at least slow down the progress. Unfortunately, a lot of experimentation was failed, but the world does not stand still and new inventions can be made. The first signs of Alzheimer may be anxiety, depression, and forgetfulness. This disease progresses rather quickly and a person can die in 7 to 10 years. It has been scientifically established that more often women are getting this disease; pathology in most cases develops in older people. Damage to the brain is accompanied by loss of memory, impaired thinking, orientation and coordination. The last stage of Alzheimers disease is characterized by personal degradation, complete loss of memory, speech, body functions are lost, and death is possible. If the first symptoms of the disease were missed and treatment started with severe symptoms of the disease, the average life expectancy is 3 to 6 years. At this stage of the disease, the patient has cognitive impairment. The patient forgets everything, it is difficult for him to perform simple actions to take the keys with him, the money when going to the store; the patient can go out in clothes out of season; he forgets words, he has the first signs of a speech disorder. At the mild stage of Alzheimers disease, the patient may get lost on his street, go to another part of the city, forget his address. Patients avoid communication, withdraw into themselves, are often annoyed, show aggression. With the development of pathology, the symptoms are the same for everyone, but the course of the disease occurs individually in some p atients, the disease progresses very quickly. Special tests were developed to determine the stage of the disease with the following classification: early, moderate (medium), severe (last). The last stage of Alzheimers disease is characterized by complete degradation of the individual, the patient can no longer take care of himself, the reflexes are disturbed, he cannot swallow food, loses speech. The last stage of the disease confers a person to bed the patient cannot raise his head, stops smiling, there is an increased muscle tone, the person experiences severe pain. This stage of the disease is fatal. At the last stage of Alzheimers disease, the patient needs help with everything he cannot use the toilet by himself, there is urinary incontinence, he may not be well oriented in the apartment. The last stage of the disease requires the use of adult diapers, round-the-clock supervision of the patient. Living with such a patient becomes a very difficult ordeal for relatives. The patient behaves inadequately, can be aggressive, hit, shout, refuse to eat, hygienic procedures. During the severe stages of Alzheimers disease, it takes a long time to care for a sick person. Often, members of a family in which there is a patient with Alzheimer suffer from depression and experience chronic stress. The main cause of Alzheimers disease is amyloid deposits in brain tissue that cause disruption of neural connections and cell death, which leads to degeneration of the brain substance. Amyloid deposits are formed in two variants. Amyloid plaques that form first in the tissues of the hippocampus, and then spread to the entire brain, prevent the organ from performing its functions. Amyloid increases the concentration of calcium in brain cells, which causes their death. The second type of deposits is neurofibrillary tangles. The tangles found in the study of the brain of a deceased patient consist of insoluble tau protein, which also disrupts normal brain function. The causes of deposits leading to the development of Alzheimers disease have not been precisely established. Almost at the very beginning I wrote that one of my relatives had this disease. This is my aunt, my mothers sister. Unfortunately, she is no longer with us and I understand that this may concern any of our family. I identified several signs that should be taken into account if they appeared, because if you identify this disease at an early stage, there will be more chances to overcome it. Here is the list: Loss of memory (This includes requests to repeat the same information several times, the growing dependence on written reminders and the difficulty in recalling recent events.) Neglecting the usual activities (Apathy, loss of interest, avoiding the usual circle of people and favorite activities.) Disorientation in time and space (Failure to determine the time of year, your location or why you ended up in this place.) Visual and spatial difficulties (It becomes difficult to climb or descend the stairs, climb into the bath, find your way home, read books.) Changes in personality and mood (Changes in behavior and mood.) Reduced writing and verbal communication skills. Difficulty solving problems or planning. Constant shifting of objects. Loss of judgment. Difficulties with the implementation of the usual tasks. After all, this film gave me a lot of useful and necessary information. I really want this disease not to affect me and my family. I worked for some time in a Memory care Unit and saw it all with my own eyes. I saw different stages of this disease. And I tried to give warmth and care to these patients while no one was around. We will all hope very much that research and science will give us a new and effective medicine and society to get rid of Alzheimer

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The New Fuss About Opinion Essay Topics 4th Grade

The New Fuss About Opinion Essay Topics 4th Grade Opinion Essay Topics 4th Grade Secrets That No One Else Knows About Individual schools sometimes need supplemental essays. Thanks to the correct selection of presentation style and a thorough understanding of the goals you need to attain in your essay, there are many categories essay themes may be broken into. Below is an easy organizer some of my students may also opt to use. Children ought to be able to use cellphones in school. Categories, essay topics could possibly be divided into. Writing skills in college isn't restricted to essays. Technology is altering the world we are living in and it ought to be shown in the essay. Try out a few of these topics. The Honest to Goodness Truth on Opinion Essay Topics 4th Grade Generally, opinion essay topics ask that you present your point of view on a specific matter. Observe that the objective of a persuasive speech is like the purpose for writing an argumentative or persuasive essaythe organizational structure and kind of info in a persuasive speech would be. This portion of the essay is where you restate your general point and to earn an obvious ending of the topic. This kind of essay doesn't need to rely on hard facts since it is based on someone's individual beliefs. So you don't actually need to get a topic! Since you may see, you can readily invent an excellent topic for a compare and contrast essay all on your own, without a lot of trouble. Picking a topic is a vital issue that partly estimates final success of the job. Last, be sure the topic you decide on can be supported by some factual evidence. The New Angle On Opinion Essay Topics 4th Grade Just Released It's true that you can enjoy not likely to school, staying up late, swimming all day, and perhaps even attending some sort of camp. Very often it becomes hard to choose a single topic either on account of the many ideas in the student's head, or due to their complete absence. Sometimes it's just fun to talk about your knowledge in that activity. At times, the individual can request evaluation essay help, because there are students that are low-performing and who cannot merely implement the task with no help on the section of the teachers or even on the portion of students studyin g at precisely the same college. To provide you with a remedy about how to compose an impressive college essay, here are a couple of hints you may wish to consider. Shopping online isn't secure or secure. Eliminate any mistake spelling issues and ensure there's a flow in the writing of the essay. Speaking about delicacy, it's a fundamental portion of any essay. For students, if you're unfamiliar with an argumentative essay, bear in mind they are written to convince readers about a specific focus or point of view. When you're writing a college opinion essay, it's necessary for you to keep this idea in the rear of your head in any way times. If at all possible, the writing ought to be in a position to bring the reader into believing on the specific theme used despite their beliefs. Evidence in writing works precisely the same way. Once you realize that topic, it's about writing and rewriting. Creating an editorial topic is plenty of fun. Inside my opinion, the 1 thing that individuals won't be in a position to deal with is making a step back. It could be difficult sometimes, especially when you're having difficulty finding inspiration to write. When you pick a cause and effect topic, it ought to be something that you either know well or are interested in knowing more about. Individuals who overeat and have issues with overweight will likely set the responsibility on a person's shoulders, making their life easier in that manner. There are a lot of on-line essay writing services to assist you with your writing tasks. Be part of our happy clients who have found the very best essay service online and are enjoying t he advantages of it. When you opt to get assistance from our cheap paper writing service, you shouldn't fret about the individual who will work on your task. With the demand for writing help rising, various paper writing services are established to assist you with your writing tasks. If you are in possession of a tricky assignment to work on, find expert help at our on-line paper writing service. If you don't know the facts, then you'll have difficulty completing the assignment. Explain your commitments, and you're going to be the sort of student colleges find immensely attractive. Therefore, should you need assistance with assignment writing, look no more.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Analysis of Herman Melville´s Bartleby, the Scrivencer Essay

Herman Melville (1819-1891) is an American writer who is widely acclaimed, among his most admired works are â€Å"Bartleby, the Scrivener† and â€Å"Benito Cereno† which both first appeared as magazine pieces and only published in 1856 as part of a collection. â€Å"Bartleby† was a story reflecting on the business world of the mid-19th century se t in New York none of its most famous and sometimes dangerous street: Wall Street. Bartleby a strange but intriguing man becomes employed in a legal office and in his life and death provides a sort of enigma for his employer, the reader, and the story itself. Bartleby , the Scrivener is a story that examines the ideas of a modern working man who is trapped in a mundane cycle that society has put him†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"While of other law-copyists [Bartleby] I might write the complete life, of Bartleby nothing of that sort can be done [acknowledgement by the narrator that neither he nor anyone really kn ows the truth of Bartlebly]. I believe that no materials exist for a full and satisfactory biography of man. It is an irreparable loss to literature. Bartleby was one of those being of who nothing is ascertainable, except from the original sources, and in his case those are very small. What my own astonished eyes saw of Bartleby that is all I know of him.† (Melville, Bartleby the Scrivener: A story of Wall-Steet) When the narrator himself first introduces us to Bartleby the understanding that the narrator does not know everything thus we do not know everything is presented in tenfold because it is a reflection upon a character not a direct characterization. The narrator reflects on interaction with Bartleby and the impression and assertions it has left on him. Bartleby from the beginning is a presented almost as he is still alive but we no better of it. Bartleby is already a haunting in the text as the initial story is told while looking back rather than from minute to minute happening. In this extent it’s interesting to observe that Bartleby in essence is almost a double of the narrator, a representation of what the narrator lacks. Even the first initial descriptions of Bartleby performing his duties He ran a day and night line, copying by sunlight and by candlelight. I

Monday, December 9, 2019

Marketing in hospitality management free essay sample

Higher National Diploma in HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT Unit Title: Marketing in Hospitality Assignment Title: Assignment 1 Student Name Number Unit Lecturer: Group: Issue Date: Draft Submission: Final Submission: Executive summary: The UK hospitality industry is highly competitive where consumers have the opportunity to from a range of outlets during buying process. The UK hospitality is consistently expanding to attract new and retain customers. It is very important for any hospitality organization to communicate to its current and existing potential customers let them know about the organization’s new promotions and offers, consequently an organization should have an unique marketing strategy that could potentially set them apart from their competitors, which can be based on its pricing, products/ services or promotional activities. In this report it is intended to investigate the key component of marketing in UK hospitality industry. This report starts by defining the terms â€Å"Marketing† from different angles, it also discusses macro micro environmental influences in hospitality marketing, hospitality marketing mix, market segment etc. Further this report analyzes the marketing strategies followed by EAT. a leading sandwich shop in the UK. Key words: Need, want demand, product marketing vs services marketing, marketing mix, consumer purchasing behaviour. SOWT PESTLE analysis. Table of content: Table of Contents 1. 1 Introduction: Hospitality marketing is different than other types of industry as it deals with not only tangible products, a bed in a hotel or foods in the restaurant, but also deals with the intangible aspects of hospitality, like serving foods. The success of any hospitality organization mostly depends on the proper efforts on the marketing which promotes both products and services to fulfil the demands of the consumers at the same time. The integration of three main aspects of hospitality marketing can help an organization to be unique from their competitors are, Service Marketing, which includes, understanding the core concept of marketing and the difference between services and product marketing. Marketing Plan, which includes Macro and Micro environment of the hospitality marketing. Marketing mix Electronic Marketing, which include, marketing activities done by internet and database, Hoffman, K. Bateson, J. (1997) 1. 2 Marketing concept: Different philosophers defined marketing in different ways. Earlier Marketing used to be defined based on the mutual transaction, according to Kotler, (2010), â€Å"Marketing is the meeting people’s needs and wants through mutual exchange of products and services using monetary system†. Kotler originally suggested that this process of exchanges know as â€Å"transaction marketing†. Earlier definition of marketing had been criticized and evolved relationship marketing as transactional focus helps to generate sales only. Further, Chartered institute of marketing, 1976 and American institute of marketing association, 2007, proposed that â€Å"Marketing is a management process aimed at delivering customer satisfaction†. However, Pines Gilmore,(1999) claims that, â€Å" only satisfying customer is no longer enough in competitive business environment, companies compete by â€Å"creating memorable experience† to â€Å"wow† customers to generate positive words of mouth to build repeated and recommended business†. And memorable experience comes when every demands of customers becomes fulfilled, Bowie and Buttle, (2011). A memorable experience of a product or services of an organization comes from four levels i. e. basic, expected, desirable, to ultimately the unanticipated, Albrecht, (1992). See figure 1. 1 Figure 1. The hierarchy of customer value Analyzing above all the philosophies and definition of marketing it is worthy to say the management of demands of the market is the central purpose of promoting marketing theory and practice and this theory of marketing comes from Kotler(1999), where he stated that, â€Å" Marketing’s central purpose is demand management, and marketers need to manage the level, timing and the composition of demand†. This definition of marketing is more suitable compared to others because it explains what marketers do and when they do it in certain times, Bowie and Buttle, (2011). Another important point of marketing concept is good marketers focus on creating value to customers and satisfying their need better than their competitors instead of generating profit also the involvement of all employees from all levels of the organization need to be integrated to fulfil their customer’s interests. It is also important that inappropriate process of marketing will not bring anything good for the organization, Kotler, P. , Bowen, J. Makens, J. (2006). Figure 1. 2 summarizes this concept. Figure 1. 2 Marketing concept Integrated marketing Profitability customer’s needs wants Source: google image 1. 3 Needs, Wants and Demand: Needs, Wants and Demand are closely related to each others. According to Kotler, (2008), â€Å"Need is a state of deprivation of same basic things i. e. food, clothing and shelter. And Wants are specific satisfiers of needs. Human needs are infinite and Demands are wants for specific products that are backed by an ability and willingness to buy them†. For example, education is human needs but willing to study in Cambridge is want and when this want often are fulfilled than it becomes Demand. Product marketing vs service marketing: Marketing process is all about satisfying customer’s demands and these demands can be both product (objective, devices, or things) and/ or services (action, performances, or experiences). Earlier marketers used to focus on marketing physical products only but now because of high interest on services, selling service has been an potential marketing sector. For instance, in Australia, Norway, Canada, France, Japan and United Kingdom, 60% of total GDP comes from services sectors. And in Hong Kong it is around 85%, Hoffman, K.   Bateson, J. (1997). Most of the hospitality organization provides both services and products, for example food is tangible and dinning out for the customer is an experience/performance. To run an organization successfully it is very important to have different marketing approach to market a product or service as four unique characteristics of services keeps it apart from products. (see figure 1. 3). Table 1 explain s how service marketing are different from product marketing. Figure 1. 3 characteristic of service Source: Hoffman, K. Bateson, J. (1997). Table 1 characteristic of Hospitality Marketing Service characteristic Meaning Example Intangibility Not perceivable before purchase It is not possible for customer to judge their meals before they taste the food and experience the services. Inseparability Other customer may be part of the services. Other customers can be influenced by the presence of loud customers in a restaurant. Variability Quality of services of a same hospitality organization may vary for different time, location provider Quality of services provided by EAT. in Liverpole may vary from Oxford Perish ability Services are not long lasting or short lasting, it can not be stocked for future sells or uses Unsold room of a hotel can not be saved for tomorrow. 1. 5 Customer satisfaction and retention: Though the customer satisfaction and retention are very close to each other but still they are not interlinked. Customer satisfaction is the scale of how well an organization’s products or services, support and communication are able to meet the customer’s expectations, organization or on the other hand, customer retention is how well a customer stays with the organization or a specific product or services, Bowie Buttle, (2011). The state of retention comes from satisfied customers but in organization it is also found that a satisfied customer but not retained yet because that particular customer is looking for something new or better one in future though he/she is satisfied now, on the other hand a dissatisfied can be retained because of long term contract or the supply of goods or services are less than the demand in the market, Bowie Buttle, (2011). Analyzing the customer’s behavioural process it is seen that, it costs five times or more to attract a new customer than retaining existing customers, Bowie Buttle, (2011, p- 354) that is why marketers always struggle to retain customer than attracting new one. 2. 1 Environmental influences on the UK hospitality marketing: To understand the changes in the business environment, marketers need to focus on the internal and external factors that influence the business environment . in this report, EAT, a sandwich chain shop is taken to analyze these factors. Source: eat. co. uk Figure 1. 4 EAT Outlet Having a vision of number one sandwich chain in the UK EAT has developed their marketing strategies analyzing Macro Micro environment of the hospitality industry in the UK. According to Kotler, (1998), â€Å"PESTLE is useful strategic tool to understand market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operation†. See figure 1. 4 Figure 1. 5 PESTL Analysis Political/legal factors: Genetically Modified (GM) food has became an issue for the fast food industry in the UK since April 2004 as new rule came into enforce regarding GM levelling food. It is customer’s right to know if any ingredient is used which are genetically modified, (legislation. gov. uk). as people now -a-days more health conscious, scientist argument on it may have adverse affect on food industry in the UK. And EAT. is no exception. However, environmental secretary claims that the crops are safe to human body, Poulter,(2013). An increased regulation on fast food market already affected the market and may affect in the future as well. For instance, GST ( Goods Service Tax) which is responsible for the in the change of price of fast food products in recent years while other foods remained unchanged,(www. gov. uk) therefore, sandwich outlets like EAT emphasising on proving extraordinary service so that consumers feel a great difference eating between home and fast food shop. Economical factors: Purchasing power of people has a great impact on any kind of business specially in al hospitality industry because low earning people hardly go to fine dining rather they choose fast food or sandwich shop. EAT as a sandwich restaurant hardly face bad economical influence as the price of their product are in range of in compared to fine dining, other restaurant and other sandwich, fast food shop. The present economical condition of the UK is much more better than last couple of years. According to the national statistics, â€Å"number of unemployment dropped by 63,000 to 2. 33 million in the three months to junuary- a rate of 7. 2% while 1. 17 million people were signing on for jobseekers allowance last month, a fall of 34,000. In addition to this, the GDP growth increased by 2.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The City of Kelsey free essay sample

They tried to create the â€Å"perfect city† and compared to many places and cities in The United States, The City of Kelsey may be as perfect as it gets. Unfortunately, as perfect and wonderful as The City of Kelsey may sound, it is a false perception, for no place is perfect. There have been numerous reports from residents in the city, stating that after large amounts of rainfall that, they see a sheen over the Kelsey River. As much as the community pretends to care about their land and the people on it, nothing has been done to further the investigation of this â€Å"sheen. The scariest part of this to me is that a large source of the community’s drinking water comes from this river and even though there is not a lot of boating in the river, there is a lot of fishing. What if people are eating these fish and how can they be sure they are safe? With all the Farmer’s Markets and community recreations that are taking place within the city, that money should be raised to test the river waters and make sure that the people of Kelsey are safe and happy (Apollo Group, Inc, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008 ). We will write a custom essay sample on The City of Kelsey or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Another issue that I could not help but, take into consideration is, if this town was designed to be a small and â€Å"close-knit† community, why is their government doing so much advertising on the internet and how does it make the people in that community feel about that? If people keep coming to The City of Kelsey, it will soon become like every other city and it will no longer be unique. I think that this could cause hate and violence towards outsiders (Apollo Group, Inc, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008 ). There has also been the identification of air pollutants and their sources, including greenhouse gases and associated control technologies.There has not been any test on the air nor the pollutions that may be inhabiting this city, but yet they want to keep bringing more people in the city? That does not seem right or ethical to me. I feel that money can be used in the same way to do testing as in the water supply. They could also rent out canoes and bicycles to help raise money ( Apollo Group, Inc, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008 ). In the year of 2000, there were 316 rapes in The City of Kelsey. I find this to be unacceptable. Where is their law enforcement? They should be trying to keep the crime rates down as much as possible.This could be done by creating city night watchers, city council meetings, and higher staffed police officers on duty during shifts. City council meeting could help bring the community together, by coming up with ways to resolve the crime and other un-ethical issues within the city (Apollo Group, Inc, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008 ). There is a lot of â€Å"right† in The City of Kelsey and as I have said before, their minds are in the right place. I just feel that they are avoiding what could just be small, starter problems and if these problems keep being ignored and avoided, they are just going to grow into larger problems.